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Referencing Toolkit: Home

Referencing Styles

While there are many different styles of referencing, at Newington College our preferred referencing styles for academic work are APA (for in-text citation/works cited) and Chicago (for footnotes/endnotes).

Please use this toolkit for guidance on how to reference your work

Please check your assessment information for the style of referencing required. It may differ between subjects.

Referencing Style Guide

Why is it important to reference?

Academic writing often involves collating information from a variety of sources into your own writing, to show you have researched widely and to add credibility to your work.

However, when using the work of others, you need to be careful not to plagiarise: stealing and passing off the work of someone else as your own.

To avoid doing so, make sure you properly acknowledge the author of the resource you have used, by quoting and paraphrasing.


When should I quote?

  • to provide support from an expert
  • to present another's argument or perspective to analyse, critique or comment on
  • to include particularly interesting or historically important language

How do I quote?

A direct quotation should be presented within quotation marks, followed by the authors surname, year of publication, and page number, inside curved brackets.


e.g. "as the drama draws to a close, its characters and events vanish into thin air, since, being fictions, there is nowhere for them to go" (Eagleton, 2013, p. 47).

e.g. Latimer (2016) states that "even if the contract is read, it may not be understood" (p. 400).

When should I paraphrase?

  • to provide support from an expert
  • to present another's argument or perspective to analyse, critique or comment on
  • what you want from the source is the idea, not the specific language used to communicate it
  • you can summarise the key point of the source

How do I paraphrase?

Even when using your own words to explain someone else's idea - you must reference the original author. To effectively paraphrase, read the paragraph several times to understand what it means, close the book or browser and then re-write it in your own words.


e.g. The second Vatican Council was a significant event in Australian and international catholicism, which occured over 45 year ago. (Black, 1991, p. 20).

e.g. Lichtheim (1970) argues that anarchism as a social movement is now only significant in historical context, as the social implications are no longer relevant in the current world (p. 228).